What is a Civil State?

The essence of the civil state is to deal with its citizens without any mediation. Mediation in our region of the world differs between military mediation, national and ethnic mediation, or sectarian mediation, as in Lebanon. Sectarianism is nothing but a societal formation that historical paths may create, crystallize, and eliminate. Its formation and development may take different shapes in its roles and expressions, depending on historical conditions. Thus the civil state derives its legitimacy from its direct relationship with the citizen and adopts upon its founding a societal formation different from what we know now.